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Version: 2.11.x

Message dispatch throttling

Overview

What is message dispatch throttling?

Large message payloads can cause memory usage spikes that lead to performance decreases. Pulsar adopts a rate-limit throttling mechanism for message dispatch, avoiding a traffic surge and improving message deliverability. You can set a threshold to limit the number of messages and the byte size of entries that can be delivered to clients, blocking subsequent deliveries when the traffic per unit of time exceeds the threshold.

For example, when you configure the dispatch rate limit to 10 messages per second, then the number of messages that can be delivered to the client per second is up to 10.

Rate-limit dispatch throttling

Why use it?

Message dispatch throttling brings the following benefits in detail:

  • Limit broker's read request loads to BookKeeper

    Messages are persistently stored in the BookKeeper cluster. If a large number of read requests cannot be fulfilled using the cached data, the BookKeeper cluster may become too busy to respond, and the broker's I/O or CPU resources can be fully occupied. Using the message dispatch throttling feature can regulate the data flow to limit the broker’s read request loads to BookKeeper.

  • Balance the allocation of broker's hardware resources at topic/subscription levels

    A broker instance serves multiple topics at one time. If a topic is overloaded with requests, it will occupy almost all of the I/O, CPU, and memory resources of the broker, causing other topics cannot be read. Using the message dispatch throttling feature can limit the allocation of broker’s hardware resources across topics.

  • Limit the allocation of client's hardware resources at topic/subscription levels

    When there is a large backlog of messages to consume, clients may receive a large amount of data in a short period of time, which monopolizes their computing resources. Since the client has no mechanisms to proactively limit the consumption rate, using the message dispatch throttling feature can also regulate the allocation of the client's hardware resources.

How it works?

The process of message dispatch throttling can be divided into the following steps:

  1. The broker approximates the number of entries to read from the bookies by calculating the remaining quota.
  2. The broker reads the messages from the bookies.
  3. The broker dispatches the messages to the client and updates the counter to decrease the quota. A scheduled task refreshes the quota when a throttling period ends.
note
  • The quota cannot be decreased before step 3, because the broker doesn't know the actual number of messages per entry or the actual entry size until it reads the data.
  • Operations like seek or redeliver may deliver messages to a client multiple times. The broker counts them as different messages and updates the counter.

Concepts

Throttling levels

The following table outlines the three levels that you can throttle message dispatch.

LevelDescription
Per brokerAll subscriptions in a single broker share the quota.
Per topicAll subscriptions in the same topic share the quota.
  • If it's a non-partitioned topic, the quota equals the maximum number of messages the topic can deliver per unit of time.
  • If a topic has multiple partitions, the quota refers to the maximum number of messages each partition can deliver per unit of time. In other words, the actual dispatch rate limit of a partitioned topic is N times the configured one (N is the number of partitions inside the topic). For example, the topic t0 has two partitions. If you set the quota to 10/s, then the rate limit of both t0-p0 and t0-p1 is 10/s, while the total rate limit of t0 is 20/s. Note that the quota cannot be shared among partitions, but can be shared among subscriptions inside a partition.
  • Per subscription
  • If it's a non-partitioned topic, the rate limit refers to the maximum number of messages a subscription can deliver to clients per unit of time.
  • If the subscribed topic has multiple partitions, the rate limit refers to the maximum number of messages the subscription can deliver per partition per unit of time. In other words, a subscription's actual dispatch rate limit for a partitioned topic is N times the configured one (N is the number of partitions inside the topic). For example, the topic t1 has two partitions with the subscription s1. If you set the rate limit to 10/s, then the rate limit for s1 in both t1-p0 and t1-p1 is 10/s, while the total rate limit of s1 is 20/s.
  • note

    The dispatch rate limits configured at multiple levels take effect simultaneously (logical AND).

    Throttling approaches

    The following table outlines multiple approaches to configure the dispatch rate limits at different levels.

    ApproachPer clusterPer topicPer subscription
    Set broker configurations or dynamic broker configurations
  • dispatchThrottlingRateInMsg
  • dispatchThrottlingRateInByte
  • dispatchThrottlingRatePerTopicInMsg
  • dispatchThrottlingRatePerTopicInByte

  • It applies to all topics in the cluster.
  • dispatchThrottlingRatePerSubscriptionInMsg
  • dispatchThrottlingRatePerSubscriptionInByte

  • It applies to all subscriptions in the cluster.
    Set namespace policiesN/ARefer to Configure dispatch throttling for topics.Refer to Configure dispatch throttling for subscriptions.
    Set topic policiesN/ARefer to Set topic-level dispatch rate.Refer to Set subscription-level dispatch rate.
    It applies to all subscriptions in a topic.
    note

    The dispatch rate limits configured through the above three approaches take effect with priorities, which is "topic policies" > "namespace policies" > "broker configurations". For example, if you have configured the dispatch rate limit for a subscription using all these three approaches, only the one configured through "topic policies" takes effect.

    Throttling configurations

    The following table outlines the parameters that you can configure for message dispatch throttling in the conf/broker.conf file.

    ParameterDescriptionDefault value
    dispatchThrottlingRateInMsgThe total number of messages that can be delivered per cluster per throttling period.

    To set the topic-level or the subscription-level one, configure dispatchThrottlingRatePerTopicInMsg or dispatchThrottlingRatePerSubscriptionInMsg.
    '-1', which means no limit.
    dispatchThrottlingRateInByteThe total byte size of messages that can be delivered per cluster per throttling period.

    To set the topic-level or the subscription-level one, configure dispatchThrottlingRatePerTopicInByte or dispatchThrottlingRatePerSubscriptionInByte.
    '-1', which means no limit.
    ratePeriodInSecondThe period of time for dispatch throttling (in seconds). The counter is reset at the end of the period.
    For example, if you want to configure the rate limit to 10,000 messages per minute, you need to set ratePeriodInSecond to 60 and set dispatchThrottlingRateInMsg to 10,000.
    1 (second)
    preciseDispatcherFlowControlWhether to apply a precise control on the dispatch throttling. By default, it's disabled, which means the broker approximates the number of messages to read from bookies using the minimum value between the remaining consumer.receiverQueueSize (defaults to 1000) and dispatcherMaxReadBatchSize (defaults to 100).

    When it's set to true, the broker approximates the number of entries to read from bookiesthe \ number \ of \ entries \ to \ read \ from \ bookies through the following equation:

    The number of entries to read from the bookies=The number of messages to readThe average number of messages per entryThe \ number \ of \ entries \ to \ read \ from \ the \ bookies = {{The \ number \ of \ messages \ to \ read} \over{The \ average \ number \ of \ messages \ per \ entry}}

    For example, assume you've set the rate limit to 10/s. When the average number of messages per entry is 6, it means the broker reads 2 entries per second, and the total number of messages to read exceeds the quota. However, when it's set to false, the broker reads 10 entries (approximately 60 messages), which exceeds the quota much more.
    false
    dispatchThrottlingOnBatchMessageEnabledWhether to count messages by entry (batch). By default, it's disabled.

    Note that setting it to true may lead to an inaccurate approximation of total message count but maximize Pulsar's throughput while keeping stable read requests to the bookies. For example, assume you've set the rate limit to 10/s, if you set dispatchThrottlingOnBatchMessageEnabled to true, the broker only reads 10 entries and delivers them to the client per second, despite the number of messages per entry.
    false
    dispatchThrottlingOnNonBacklogConsumerEnabledWhether the dispatch throttling on non-backlog consumers is enabled. By default, it's enabled.
    When it is set to false:
  • If all the consumers in one subscription have no backlog, the message dispatch throttling is turned off automatically even if dispatchThrottlingRateInMsg and dispatchThrottlingRateInByte are configured.
  • If at least one consumer has a backlog, the throttling is turned on automatically.
  • true
    note
    • You can use dispatchThrottlingRateInMsg and dispatchThrottlingRateInByte simultaneously (logical AND).
    • Ensure that only one of preciseDispatcherFlowControl and dispatchThrottlingOnBatchMessageEnabled is enabled at one time since they are mutually exclusive. Both parameters can be used to improve the over-delivery issues (see Limitations). The difference between them is:
      • When preciseDispatcherFlowControl is enabled, Pulsar considers the number of messages per entry. This parameter takes effect when the broker reads entries from the bookies.
      • When dispatchThrottlingOnBatchMessageEnabled is enabled, Pulsar ignores the number of messages per entry. This parameter takes effect when the broker updates the counter after sending messages to the client.

    Limitations

    Message dispatch throttling may cause messages over-delivered per unit of time due to the following reasons:

    1. The broker may read more entries or bytes from the bookies than the throttling limit.

      a) The byte size of messages delivered to the client may exceed the configured threshold.

      When you set the dispatch rate limit in bytes/throttling-period (dispatchThrottlingRateInByte/ratePeriodInSecond), the broker calculates the number of entries to read from bookiesthe \ number \ of \ entries \ to \ read \ from \ bookies in one throttling period through the following equation:

      The number of entries to read from bookies=The total byte size to readThe average byte size per entryThe \ number \ of \ entries \ to \ read \ from \ bookies = {{The \ total \ byte \ size \ to \ read} \over{The \ average \ byte \ size \ per \ entry}}

      By controlling the number of entries to read from bookiesthe \ number \ of \ entries \ to \ read \ from \ bookies, the broker attempts to limit the total byte size to read below the dispatch rate within each throttling period. It reads messages from the bookies in the unit of entry and approximates the bytes of the next entry to read because it does not know the exact byte size of each entry before reading it.

      The broker uses the following two metrics to get the average byte size per entry:

      • Average publish size (brk_ml_EntrySizeBuckets): the average byte size per entry stored in the bookies when the broker receives a publish request.

      • Average dispatch size (entriesReadSize/entriesReadCount): the average byte size per entry read from bookies, that is, the average byte size per entry sent to the client.

        The broker uses the average publish size in preference to the average dispatch size. If the average publish size is unavailable, then it uses the average dispatch size. When none of the two metrics are available, the broker only reads one entry at the first attempt.

      b) The number of messages delivered to the client may exceed the configured threshold.

      When you set the dispatch rate limit in message-count/throttling-period (dispatchThrottlingRateInMsg/ratePeriodInSecond) and batching (batch-send) is enabled, the broker counts an entry as one message (despite the message count per entry) and calculates the number of entries to read from bookiesthe \ number \ of \ entries \ to \ read \ from \ bookies through the following equation:

      The number of entries to read from bookies=The total number of messages to readThe average message count per entry (=1)The \ number \ of \ entries \ to \ read \ from \ bookies = {{The \ total \ number \ of \ messages \ to \ read} \over{The \ average \ message \ count \ per \ entry} \ (=1)}

      Since there is a number of messages per entry, the number of messages delivered to the client always exceeds or equals the configured threshold.

      Workaround

      Configuring preciseDispatcherFlowControl or dispatchThrottlingOnBatchMessageEnabled can mitigate the over-delivery issue. For example, turning on preciseDispatcherFlowControl can mitigate the limitation by pre-decrementing the quota using the approximated average message count per entry. See Throttling configurations for more details.

    2. Concurrent throttling processes may not decrease the quota in a timely manner.

      As introduced in How it works, the dispatch throttling process is 1.get remaining quota \to 2.load data \to 3.decrease quota.

      When two processes "dispatch replay messages (process-R)" and "dispatch non-replay messages (process-N)" in the same subscription are executed concurrently, their throttling processes can be interwoven in this order:

      1) process-R: 1.get remaining quota

      2) process-R: 2.load data

      3) process-N: 1.get remaining quota

      4) process-N: 2.load data

      5) process-R: 3.decrease quota

      6) process-N: 3.decrease quota

      As a result, the total number of dispatched messages may exceed the quota.

      note

      When over-delivery happens, and the delivered message count exceeds the quota in the current period, then the quota for the next period will be reduced accordingly. For example, if the rate limit is set to 10/s, and 11 messages have been delivered to the client in the first period, then only up to 9 messages can be delivered to the client in the next period; if 30 messages have been delivered in the last period, the count of messages to deliver in the next two periods is 0.

      An example of over-delivery occurred within a throttling period