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Pulsar C++ client

You can use a Pulsar C++ client to create producers, consumers, and readers. For Pulsar features that C++ clients support, see Client Feature Matrix. For complete examples, refer to C++ client examples.

Changes for version 3.0.0 or later

The new version of the Pulsar C++ client starts from 3.0.0 and has been no longer consistent with Pulsar since 2.10.x. For the latest releases, see the Download page.

Take the 3.0.0 release for example, there are following subdirectories:

  • apk-arm64: the Alpine Linux packages for ARM64 architectures
  • apk-x86_64: the Alpine Linux packages for x64 architectures
  • deb-arm64: the Debian-based Linux packages for ARM64 architectures
  • deb-x86_64: the Debian-based Linux packages for x64 architectures
  • rpm-arm64: the RedHat-based Linux packages for ARM64 architectures
  • rpm-x86_64: the RedHat-based Linux packages for x64 architectures

These Linux packages above all contain the C++ headers installed under /usr/include and the following libraries installed under /usr/lib:

  • libpulsar.so: the shared library that links 3rd party dependencies statically
  • libpulsar.a: the static library
  • libpulsarwithdeps.a: the fat static library that includes all 3rd party dependencies

Here is an example to link these libraries for a C++ source file named main.cc:

# Link to libpulsar.so
g++ -std=c++11 main.cc -lpulsar
# Link to libpulsarwithdeps.a
g++ -std=c++11 main.cc /usr/lib/libpulsarwithdeps.a -lpthread -ldl
# Link to libpulsar.a
g++ -std=c++11 main.cc /usr/lib/libpulsar.a \
-lprotobuf -lcurl -lssl -lcrypto -lz -lzstd -lsnappy -lpthread -ldl
caution

Linking to libpulsar.a can be difficult for beginners because the 3rd party dependencies must be compatible. For example, the protobuf version must be 3.20.0 or higher for Pulsar C++ client 3.0.0. It's better to link to libpulsarwithdeps.a instead.

danger

Before 3.0.0, there was a libpulsarnossl.so, which is removed now.

Installation

Use one of the following methods to install a Pulsar C++ client.

Brew

Use Homebrew to install the latest tagged version with the library and headers:

brew install libpulsar

Deb

  1. Download any one of the Deb packages:

    wget https://www.apache.org/dyn/mirrors/mirrors.cgi?action=download&filename=pulsar/pulsar-2.11.0/DEB/apache-pulsar-client.deb

    This package contains shared libraries libpulsar.so and libpulsarnossl.so.

  2. Install the package using the following command:

    apt install ./apache-pulsar-client*.deb

Now, you can see Pulsar C++ client libraries installed under the /usr/lib directory.

RPM

  1. Download any one of the RPM packages:

    wget https://archive.apache.org/dist/pulsar/pulsar-2.11.0/RPMS/apache-pulsar-client-2.11.0-1.x86_64.rpm

    This package contains shared libraries: libpulsar.so and libpulsarnossl.so.

  2. Install the package using the following command:

    rpm -ivh apache-pulsar-client*.rpm

Now, you can see Pulsar C++ client libraries installed under the /usr/lib directory.

note

If you get an error like "libpulsar.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory" when starting a Pulsar client, you need to run ldconfig first.

APK

apk add --allow-untrusted ./apache-pulsar-client-*.apk

Connection URLs

To connect to Pulsar using client libraries, you need to specify a Pulsar protocol URL.

You can assign Pulsar protocol URLs to specific clusters and use the pulsar scheme. The following is an example of localhost with the default port 6650:

pulsar://localhost:6650

If you have multiple brokers, separate IP:port by commas:

pulsar://localhost:6550,localhost:6651,localhost:6652

If you use TLS authentication, add +ssl in the scheme:

pulsar+ssl://pulsar.us-west.example.com:6651

API reference

All the methods in producer, consumer, and reader of Pulsar C++ clients are thread-safe. See the API docs for more details.

Release notes

For the changelog of Pulsar C++ clients, see release notes.

Create a producer

To use Pulsar as a producer, you need to create a producer on the C++ client. There are two main ways of using a producer:

Simple blocking example

This example sends 100 messages using the blocking style. While simple, it does not produce high throughput as it waits for each ack to come back before sending the next message.

#include <pulsar/Client.h>
#include <thread>

using namespace pulsar;

int main() {
Client client("pulsar://localhost:6650");

Producer producer;

Result result = client.createProducer("persistent://public/default/my-topic", producer);
if (result != ResultOk) {
std::cout << "Error creating producer: " << result << std::endl;
return -1;
}

// Send 100 messages synchronously
int ctr = 0;
while (ctr < 100) {
std::string content = "msg" + std::to_string(ctr);
Message msg = MessageBuilder().setContent(content).setProperty("x", "1").build();
Result result = producer.send(msg);
if (result != ResultOk) {
std::cout << "The message " << content << " could not be sent, received code: " << result << std::endl;
} else {
std::cout << "The message " << content << " sent successfully" << std::endl;
}

std::this_thread::sleep_for(std::chrono::milliseconds(100));
ctr++;
}

std::cout << "Finished producing synchronously!" << std::endl;

client.close();
return 0;
}

Non-blocking example

This example sends 100 messages using the non-blocking style calling sendAsync instead of send. This allows the producer to have multiple messages in-flight at a time which increases throughput.

The producer configuration blockIfQueueFull is useful here to avoid ResultProducerQueueIsFull errors when the internal queue for outgoing send requests becomes full. Once the internal queue is full, sendAsync becomes blocking which can make your code simpler.

Without this configuration, the result code ResultProducerQueueIsFull is passed to the callback. You must decide how to deal with that (retry, discard etc).

#include <pulsar/Client.h>
#include <thread>
#include <atomic>

using namespace pulsar;

std::atomic<uint32_t> acksReceived;

void callback(Result code, const MessageId& msgId, std::string msgContent) {
// message processing logic here
std::cout << "Received ack for msg: " << msgContent << " with code: "
<< code << " -- MsgID: " << msgId << std::endl;
acksReceived++;
}

int main() {
Client client("pulsar://localhost:6650");

ProducerConfiguration producerConf;
producerConf.setBlockIfQueueFull(true);
Producer producer;
Result result = client.createProducer("persistent://public/default/my-topic",
producerConf, producer);
if (result != ResultOk) {
std::cout << "Error creating producer: " << result << std::endl;
return -1;
}

// Send 100 messages asynchronously
int ctr = 0;
while (ctr < 100) {
std::string content = "msg" + std::to_string(ctr);
Message msg = MessageBuilder().setContent(content).setProperty("x", "1").build();
producer.sendAsync(msg, std::bind(callback,
std::placeholders::_1, std::placeholders::_2, content));

std::this_thread::sleep_for(std::chrono::milliseconds(100));
ctr++;
}

// wait for 100 messages to be acked
while (acksReceived < 100) {
std::this_thread::sleep_for(std::chrono::milliseconds(100));
}

std::cout << "Finished producing asynchronously!" << std::endl;

client.close();
return 0;
}

Partitioned topics and lazy producers

When scaling out a Pulsar topic, you may configure a topic to have hundreds of partitions. Likewise, you may have also scaled out your producers so there are hundreds or even thousands of producers. This can put some strain on the Pulsar brokers as when you create a producer on a partitioned topic, internally it creates one internal producer per partition which involves communications to the brokers for each one. So for a topic with 1000 partitions and 1000 producers, it ends up creating 1,000,000 internal producers across the producer applications, each of which has to communicate with a broker to find out which broker it should connect to and then perform the connection handshake.

You can reduce the load caused by this combination of a large number of partitions and many producers by doing the following:

  • use SinglePartition partition routing mode (this ensures that all messages are only sent to a single, randomly selected partition)
  • use non-keyed messages (when messages are keyed, routing is based on the hash of the key and so messages will end up being sent to multiple partitions)
  • use lazy producers (this ensures that an internal producer is only created on demand when a message needs to be routed to a partition)

With our example above, that reduces the number of internal producers spread out over the 1000 producer apps from 1,000,000 to just 1000.

Note that there can be extra latency for the first message sent. If you set a low send timeout, this timeout could be reached if the initial connection handshake is slow to complete.

ProducerConfiguration producerConf;
producerConf.setPartitionsRoutingMode(ProducerConfiguration::UseSinglePartition);
producerConf.setLazyStartPartitionedProducers(true);

Enable chunking

Message chunking enables Pulsar to process large payload messages by splitting the message into chunks at the producer side and aggregating chunked messages at the consumer side.

The message chunking feature is OFF by default. The following is an example about how to enable message chunking when creating a producer.

ProducerConfiguration conf;
conf.setBatchingEnabled(false);
conf.setChunkingEnabled(true);
Producer producer;
client.createProducer("my-topic", conf, producer);
note

To enable chunking, you need to disable batching (setBatchingEnabled=false) concurrently.

Create a consumer

To use Pulsar as a consumer, you need to create a consumer on the C++ client. There are two main ways of using the consumer:

Blocking example

The benefit of this approach is that it is the simplest code. Simply keeps calling receive(msg) which blocks until a message is received.

This example starts a subscription at the earliest offset and consumes 100 messages.

#include <pulsar/Client.h>

using namespace pulsar;

int main() {
Client client("pulsar://localhost:6650");

Consumer consumer;
ConsumerConfiguration config;
config.setSubscriptionInitialPosition(InitialPositionEarliest);
Result result = client.subscribe("persistent://public/default/my-topic", "consumer-1", config, consumer);
if (result != ResultOk) {
std::cout << "Failed to subscribe: " << result << std::endl;
return -1;
}

Message msg;
int ctr = 0;
// consume 100 messages
while (ctr < 100) {
consumer.receive(msg);
std::cout << "Received: " << msg
<< " with payload '" << msg.getDataAsString() << "'" << std::endl;

consumer.acknowledge(msg);
ctr++;
}

std::cout << "Finished consuming synchronously!" << std::endl;

client.close();
return 0;
}

Consumer with a message listener

You can avoid running a loop by blocking calls with an event-based style by using a message listener which is invoked for each message that is received.

This example starts a subscription at the earliest offset and consumes 100 messages.

#include <pulsar/Client.h>
#include <atomic>
#include <thread>

using namespace pulsar;

std::atomic<uint32_t> messagesReceived;

void handleAckComplete(Result res) {
std::cout << "Ack res: " << res << std::endl;
}

void listener(Consumer consumer, const Message& msg) {
std::cout << "Got message " << msg << " with content '" << msg.getDataAsString() << "'" << std::endl;
messagesReceived++;
consumer.acknowledgeAsync(msg.getMessageId(), handleAckComplete);
}

int main() {
Client client("pulsar://localhost:6650");

Consumer consumer;
ConsumerConfiguration config;
config.setMessageListener(listener);
config.setSubscriptionInitialPosition(InitialPositionEarliest);
Result result = client.subscribe("persistent://public/default/my-topic", "consumer-1", config, consumer);
if (result != ResultOk) {
std::cout << "Failed to subscribe: " << result << std::endl;
return -1;
}

// wait for 100 messages to be consumed
while (messagesReceived < 100) {
std::this_thread::sleep_for(std::chrono::milliseconds(100));
}

std::cout << "Finished consuming asynchronously!" << std::endl;

client.close();
return 0;
}

Configure chunking

You can limit the maximum number of chunked messages a consumer maintains concurrently by configuring the setMaxPendingChunkedMessage and setAutoAckOldestChunkedMessageOnQueueFull parameters. When the threshold is reached, the consumer drops pending messages by silently acknowledging them or asking the broker to redeliver them later.

The following is an example of how to configure message chunking.

ConsumerConfiguration conf;
conf.setAutoAckOldestChunkedMessageOnQueueFull(true);
conf.setMaxPendingChunkedMessage(100);
Consumer consumer;
client.subscribe("my-topic", "my-sub", conf, consumer);

Schema

To work with Pulsar schema using C++ clients, see Schema - Get started. For specific schema types that C++ clients support, see code.